Gentamicin 240 mg plus azithromycin 2 g vs. ceftriaxone 500 mg plus azithromycin 2 g for treatment of rectal and pharyngeal gonorrhoea: a randomized controlled trial
Rob F, Klubalová B, Nyčová E, Hercogová J, Unemo M. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2020 Feb;26(2):207-212. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2019.08.004. Epub 2019 Aug 14. IF: 6.425
MUDr. Filip Rob, Ph.D., Dermatovenerologická klinika
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of gentamicin 240 mg plus azithromycin 2 g for treatment of uncomplicated rectal and pharyngeal gonorrhoea compared to ceftriaxone 500 mg plus azithromycin 2 g, the recommended European first-line gonorrhoea treatment.
METHODS: A non-inferiority, open-label, single-centre randomized controlled trial was conducted in Prague, Czech Republic. Patients, 18-75 years of age, diagnosed with uncomplicated rectal or pharyngeal gonorrhoea by nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) were randomized to treatment with gentamicin 240 mg intramuscularly plus azithromycin 2 g orally or ceftriaxone 500 g intramuscularly plus azithromycin 2 g orally. The primary outcome was negative culture and negative NAAT, i.e. 1 week and 3 weeks, respectively, after treatment.
RESULTS: Both clinical cure and microbiological clearance was achieved by 100% (95% CI 0.95-1.00) of patients in the gentamicin/azithromycin arm (n = 72; 40 rectal, 17 pharyngeal and 15 rectal+pharyngeal infections both localizations) and 100% (95% CI 0.95-1.00) in ceftriaxone/azithromycin arm (n = 71; 38 rectal, 14 pharyngeal and 19 rectal+pharyngeal infections). The absolute difference between the two arms was 0.0% (CI95% -5.1 to 5.1), thus less than the pre-specified margin of 7%. Administration of gentamicin was not more painful than ceftriaxone according to the visual analogue scale (1.8 vs. 3.4; p <0.001). Gastrointestinal adverse events were similar in the ceftriaxone arm (33/71, 46.5%) and the gentamicin arm (29/72, 40.3%), and overall in most (52/62, 83.9%) cases they were mild.
CONCLUSIONS: Gentamicin 240 mg plus azithromycin 2 g is an effective alternative for treatment of extragenital gonorrhoea.