Genomic landscape of pediatric B-other acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a consecutive European cohort.
Zaliova M, Stuchly J, Winkowska L, Musilova A, Fiser K, Slamova M, Starkova J, Vaskova M, Hrusak O, Sramkova L, Stary J, Zuna J, Trka J. Haematologica. 2019 Jul;104(7):1396-1406. doi: 10.3324/haematol.2018.204974. Epub 2019 Jan 10. IF: 7.57
MUDr. Markéta Kubričanová Žaliová, Ph.D., Department of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology
Novel biological subtypes and clinically important genetic aberrations (druggable lesions, prognostic factors) have been described in B-other acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during the last decade; however, due to a lack of studies on unselected cohorts, their population frequency and mutual associations still have to be established. We studied 110 consecutively diagnosed and uniformly treated childhood B-other patients using single nucleotide polymorphism arrays and whole exome/transcriptome sequencing. The frequency of DUX4-rearranged, BCR-ABL1-like, ZNF384-rearranged, ETV6-RUNX1-like, iAMP21 and MEF2D-rearranged subtypes was 27%, 15%, 5%, 5%, 4%, and 2%, respectively; 43% of cases were not classified into any of these subtypes (B-rest). We found worse early response to treatment in DUX4-rearranged leukemia and a strong association of ZNF384-rearranged leukemia with B-myeloid immunophenotype. Of the druggable lesions, JAK/STAT-class and RAS/RAF/MAPK-class aberrations were found in 21% and 43% of patients, respectively; an ABL-class aberration was found in one patient. A recently described negative prognostic factor, IKZF1plus , was found in 14% of patients and was enriched in (but not exclusive for) BCR-ABL1-like subtype. PAX5 fusions (including 4 novel), intragenic amplifications and P80R mutations were mutually exclusive and only occurred in the B-rest subset, altogether accounting for 20% of the B-other group. PAX5 P80R was associated with a specific gene expression signature, potentially defining a novel leukemia subtype. Our study shows unbiased European population-based frequencies of novel ALL subtypes, recurrent (cyto)genetic aberrations and their mutual associations. This study also strengthens and widens the current knowledge of B-other ALL and provides an objective basis for optimization of current genetic diagnostics.