Biology – The Entrance Exam Topics

Principles of biology

Basic attributes of living systems

Biological disciplines, biotechnology, biomedicine, main branches of medicine

Biological terminology

Key discoveries in biology and medicine

Chemical elements and molecules of living systems

Basic metabolic pathways

 

Molecular genetics

Central dogma of molecular biology

Structure and function of nucleic acids and proteins

DNA replication, transcription, translation and genetic code

Genome, chromosome, and gene structure

Regulation of gene expression

Mutations and their consequences

Basic molecular genetic methods

 

Cell biology

Structure and organization of cells (prokaryotic, eukaryotic, plant, animal)

Origin, structure, and function of mitochondria

Origin, structure, and function of chloroplasts, photosynthesis

Structure and function of ribosomes

Nucleus and chromatin, human karyotype

Cell cycle, mitosis, their regulation and errors

Meiosis, crossing over, oogenesis and spermatogenesis, gametes, fertilization

 

Genetics

Genotype and phenotype

Mendel laws and Mendelian and non-Mendelian modes of inheritance

Gene linkage and gene interactions

Population genetics and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

Clinical genetics, genetic counselling and prevention of genetic disorders, prenatal examination

Medically important autosomal recessive, dominant, sex-linked and multifactorial traits

Medically important chromosomal abnormalities

Germline and somatic genetic defects in cancer

 

Virology, bacteriology, protistology, zoology, botany, and mycology

Classification, basic characteristics, structure and reproduction of viruses

Retroviruses and reverse transcription

Viral diseases

Viroids, prions and associated diseases

Eubacteria and Archea, their reproduction and importance

Bacterial infections and their therapy

Protists, their taxonomy and classification

Parasitic protists and associated diseases

Taxonomy and evolution of animals

Classification, reproduction, ontogenesis and body structure of invertebrates

Parasitic invertebrates (helmints, arthropods), their life cycle and associated diseases

Classification, reproduction, ontogenesis and body structure of chordates

Taxonomy, evolution and reproduction of plants and fungi

Medically important fungi (parasitic, producing antibiotics or toxic compounds)

 

Basic human biology

Basic anatomy and physiology of the human body, tissues and organ systems

Skeleton, structure and development of bones, disorders of the musculoskeletal system

Most important muscles and the mechanism of muscular contraction

Basic components and function of blood, blood groups and transfusion

Heart and circulatory system, blood vessels, blood pressure, heart rate, cardiovascular diseases

Immunity, lymphatic system, antibodies, vaccination and transplantation, disorders of the immune system

Respiration, respiratory system and its disorders

Digestive system and basic nutrients, vitamins, their sources and importance, eating disorders, obesity

Excretion, urinary system, production and composition of urine, diseases of the urinary system

Skin, its structure and importance, skin diseases

Central and peripheral nervous system, its anatomy and function, sensory organs and receptors

Disorders and injuries of the nervous system, stress, psychiatric diseases, addiction

Exocrine and endocrine glands, endocrine system and its disorders, hormones

Reproductive system and human reproduction, embryogenesis, organogenesis, prenatal care, inborn defects

Disorders of human reproduction, assisted reproduction, sexually transmitted diseases

Cancer, its origin, carcinogens, cancer prevention

 

Evolution

Evolutionary theories, Darwin’s concept of evolution, neodarwinism, selfish gene theory

Evolutionary factors: variability, mutation, selection, genetic drift, gene flow

Origin of life, prebiotic evolution, evolution of cellular organisms, fossils

Evolution of Homo sapiens, its ancestors and related species

 

Ecology

Biotic and abiotic factors, population, community, ecosystem, biome, species diversity

Food web, food chain, producers, consumers, decomposers

Interspecific and intraspecific relationships

Toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic factors of the human environment, genotoxicity testing

Global environmental issues and environmental protection

Published: 17. 3. 2015 / Responsible person: Ing. Karolína Francová