Medical Biophysics

Accreditation valid until: 27. 11. 2029

Chairman of the Subject Area Board:


prof. MUDr. et RNDr. Jiří BENEŠ, CSc.
Institute of Biophysics and Informatics
First Faculty of Medicine
Charles University
Salmovská 1
120 00  Prague 2
phone: +420 224 965 810
e-mail: @email

 

Contact person:
Mgr. Bc. Ludmila Maffei Svobodová
Institute of Biophysics and Informatics
First Faculty of Medicine
Charles University
Salmovská 1
120 00  Prague 2
phone: +420 224 965 858
e-mail: @email

 

Members of the Subject Area Board

Characteristics of the study programme

The study programme is an interdisciplinary branch of science which employs virtually all biological fields and is focused on scientific study and independent research activities in interdisciplinary settings, from natural science up to clinical medical work. This branch of science originated from the need to separate medical applications observing interactions of physical fields and radiation with a living organism from the bulk of technological and biological disciplines.

The goal of the study is understanding of basic biological processes for development in innovative methods and/or devices for clinical application in diagnosis and therapy. Doctorands, further to their masters education, are recruited for scientific and research projects at the training institutions and motivated by their supervisors to solve scientific and research problems of their own. In keeping with the recent developments, the programme is also focused on interconnection of the studies with the needs of clinical practice.

Admission procedure requirement specific to the study programme

The conditions and course of the admission procedure for the part-time of study are the same as the conditions for the full-time form. 

We recommend to contact your potential supervisor in advance and consult the suitable form of preparation for the interview. Each study programme has its own specifics, so the supervisor can help you to prepare for the specialized entrance examination (the interview).

Topics of dissertation thesis

The SAB did not list any topics. The candidate chooses the preliminary topic individually and contacts a potential supervisor. He/she consults with him on the chosen topic and agrees on its more precise specification. In case of any ambiguity, we recommend that you also contact the chairman of the SAB. If necessary, he/she can recommend that he/she consult the topic with another specialist according to the focus of the intended project.

If the candidate does not know which topic/supervisor to choose, he/she will contact the chairman of the SAB, with whom he/she will consult on a suitable topic and a potential supervisor.

This choice is preliminary, the admissions board may, after consultation with the candidate, nominate another supervisor.

Supervisors of the study programme

Each supervisor must be approved by the SAB. The criteria for admitting new supervisors are determined by the SAB. If the proposed supervisor has not yet been approved by the SAB, this must be done no later than the enrollment of the applicant in the study (provided that the applicant is accepted). You can find a list of supervisors approved by the SAB here. After clicking, the supervisor's workplace and contact information will be displayed.

Requirements during the study

Study obligations for full-time and part-time form of study are the same.

  • The ISP of the student designed by the supervisor and the guarantor of the study programme.
  • Part of the ISP is the completion of three to four semestral courses (four courses are recommended) and the language preparation proven by the language examination or language certificate.

The semestral courses are chosen from the list of optional doctoral courses for the program Medical Biophysics taking into account the topic of the thesis and the previous education of the student. If allowed by the supervisor and the SAB, the student can also choose courses from other study programmes. Maximum of two subjects can be chosen from the pre-graduate study course list, if the doctorand can apply them and did not complete them during his/her master study programme.

Part of the ISP is a regular publication activity and the presentation of the output of the research project at both national and international scientific conferences. Active participation as tutors in the pre-graduate tuition (seminars, clinical rotations) is recommended.

Requirements for internships

A stay abroad at a relevant professional institution, not shorter than one month, or participation on an international research project. In special and clearly justifiable cases, such as exceptional scientific results or a single excellent first-author publication, the SAB can decide the student can omit the placement.

Listed courses

B90087 Biophysical methods in medicine
B90215 Practical Medical Physics and Technology for the Leksell Gamma Knife Radiosurgery
B90249 Imaging methods and systems in medicine

Requirements for the SDE

Requirements for the admission to the SDE: succesful completion of the study obligations and the English language examination (examination at the Department of Languages of Second Faculty of Medicine CU, state language examination or an internationally recognized exam, e.g. TOEFL, Cambridge certificate).

The objective of the SDE is to check the student’s way of scientific thought, i.e. his/her ability of comprehension of the nature of the problem, including the ability of conceiving own ways of solution of the given problems. At the SDE, the students are supposed to prove their knowledge of their chosen field to the full extent of the undergraduate level but also the knowledge of trends in research and modern methodology of recent biomedicine as applied to the topic area of their dissertation theses.

Examination topics for the SDE

General Biophysics
1. Structure of electron shells in atom
2. Magnetic moment of an electron
3. Magnetic properties of the atomic nucleus
4. Principle of mass spectrometry
5. Forces acting between molecules
6. Gibbs phase rule, phase diagram
7. Electrical properties of colloids
8. Colligative properties of solutions
9. Importance of osmotic pressure for water exchange in capillaries
10. Physical laws important for the dynamics of blood circulation
11. Thermodynamic state functions
12. Chemical potential
13. Extinction, Lambert-Beer’s law
14. Emission and absorption spectral analysis
15. Magnification and resolution of an optical microscope
16. Principle of electron microscope
17. Principles of ionizing radiation detection, selective and integral radiation detection of γ
18. Principle of radiation spectrometry γ
19. Methods of personal dosimetry, exposure and radiation dose
20. Measurement errors, interpolation of discrete measured values by a continuous function, least squares method
21. Physical properties of ultrasonic waves
22. Physical principles of ultrasound using in diagnostics
23. NMR principle
24. Osmotic pressure, osmotic work of kidneys
25. Diffusion
26. Active and passive transport through the cell membrane
27. Donnan's equilibrium on the cell membrane
28. Principle of laser
29. Electrochemical potential, resting membrane potential
30. Effects of electric current
31. Electrodiagnostic methods
32. X-ray radiation and its absorption.
33. Principle of computer tomography CT
34. Biological effects of X-rays and γ-radiation, radiation dose, dose equivalent
35. Radioactive decay, physical, biological and effective half-life
36. Deterministic effects of ionizing radiation
37. Stochastic effects of ionizing radiation
38. Diagnosis of acute radiation disease
39. Treatment of acute radiation disease
40. Relation of physical properties of light radiation on its biological effect

 

Recommended literature

Jirák DanielVítek František: Basics of Medical Physics. Karolinum 2019, paperback, 226 pp. ISBN 9788024638102
Jirák DanielVítek František: Basics of Medical Physics. Karolinum 2018, published: March 2018, e-book, ISBN 9788024638843 (PDF)
Ivo Hrazdira, Vojtěch Mornstein: Lékařská biofyzika a přístrojová technika. Neptun 2004, ISBN-10: 80-902896-1-4
Vojtěch Mornstein, Ivo Hrazdira, Aleš Bourek: Lékařská fyzika a informatika. Neptun 2007, ISBN-13: 978-80-86850-02-3
Ivo Hrazdira, Vojtěch Mornstein, Jiřina Škorpíková: Základy biofyziky a zdravotnické techniky. Neptun 2006, ISBN-10: 80-86850-01-3
Navrátil, Leoš; Rosina, Jozef a kolektiv: Medicínská biofyzika, Grada, 2005, s. 524, ISBN: 978- 80-247-1152-2

Physiology
1. Cell – composition
2. Ion channels
3. Body fluids
4. Nervous system – structure, function
5. Rest and action potential
6. Synapsis
7. Muscles – structure, function
8. Skeletal muscles
9. Smooth muscles
10. Functional anatomy of the heart
11. Heart activity, ECG curve
12. Cardiac management
13. Blood circulation – functional anatomy
14. Blood composition
15. Haemoglomin
16. Red blood cells
17. Trombocytes
18. Blood groups
19. Lymphatic system
20. Leucocytes, white cells
21. Immune system
22. Respiratory system
23. Gas transport
24. Respiratory regulation
25. Kidneys
26. Acid-base balance
27. Internal CNS environment
28. Blood-brain barrier
29. Functional states of the CNS and bioelectrical activity
30. CNS integration functions


Recommended literature

Otomar Kittnar a kolektiv: Lékařská fyziologie. Grada, 2011.
Elektronická učebnici Fyziologie
Lékařská fyziologie. Grada-Avicenum, Praha 1994, reedice 1996,1999, 2003
M. Langmeier a kol.: Základy lékařské fyziologie. Grada 2009.
O. Kittnar, M. Mlček: Atlas fyziologických regulací. Grada Publishing, 2009.
S.Silbernagl, A. Despopoulos: Atlas fyziologie člověka. Grada 1993.
J. Mysliveček a kolektiv: Základy neurověd. Triton 2009, 2., opravené a přepracované vydání.

Biochemistry
1. Glycolysis
2. Gluconeogenesis
3. Pentose cycle
4. Citric acid cycle
5. Respiratory chain
6. ß-oxidation of fatty acids
7. Amino acid conversion
8. Energy metabolism of muscle
9. Membranes
10. Transport of substances (water, ions, organic molecules)
11. Metabolism of N-acetylspartate
12. Metabolism of creatine and phosphocreatine
13. Metabolism of choline compounds, the most important choline compounds
14. Metabolism of inositols
15. Metabolism of the most important neurotransmitters
16. Lactate metabolism
17. Glucose metabolism
18. Phenylalanine metabolism
19. Metabolism of ATP, ADP, AMP
20. The role of inorganic phosphate in metabolism

Recommended literature

MATOUŠ, Bohuslav. Základy lékařské chemie a biochemie. 1. vyd. Praha: Galén, c2010, xv, 540 s. ISBN 978-80-7262-702-8.
PRŮŠA, Richard a kol. Errata k učebnici Matouš, B: Základy lékařské chemie a biochemie.
MURRAY, Robert K. Harperova biochemie. 4. čes. vyd. Jinočany: Nakladatelství a vydavatelství H&H, c2002, 872 s. ISBN 80-731-9013-3.
ALBERTS, Bruce. Základy buněčné biologie: úvod do molekulární biologie buňky. 2. vyd. Překlad Arnošt Kotyk, Bohumil Bouzek, Pavel Hozák. Ústí nad Labem: Espero Publishing, c1998, 630 s. ISBN 80-902-9062-0.
KOOLMAN, Jan a Klaus-Heinrich RÖHM. Barevný atlas biochemie. 1. české vyd. Praha: Grada, 2012, 498 s. ISBN 978-802-4729-770.

Magnetic Resonance
1. Resonance condition, magnetic moment, gyromagnetic ratio
2. Bloch equations, signal shape
3. Signal strength
4. Pulse NMR spectroscopy
5. Fourier transform
6. Definition of chemical shift, standardization
7. Relaxation time T1
8. Additivity of relaxation times and basic contributions to relaxation mechanisms
9. Relaxation time T2
10. NOE: The nuclear Overhauser effect
11. MR tomograph and MR spectrometer, differences in construction, basic construction scheme
12. Coils used in MR spectroscopy
13. Sensitivity of NMR measurements, signal-to-noise ratio and possibilities of its increasing
14. NMR spectrometer resolution
15. Principle of MR imaging, comparison of MR imaging and MR spectroscopy
16. K -space in MR imaging and MR spectroscopy
17. In vivo MR spectroscopy-its difference from high resolution NMR
18. Methods of spin and stimulated echo in in vivo MR spectroscopy
19. Basic imaging MR sequences
20. “Single voxel” method
21. “Spectroscopic imaging” method
22. Water signal suppression methods (T1, slective pulses, postprocessing)
23. Spectrum processing methods
24. Methods of MR spectrum processing in frequency and time domain
25. Basic metabolites monitored by 1H MR spectroscopy
26. Basic metabolites monitored by 31P MR spectroscopy
27. Basic metabolites monitored by 13C
28. Methods for determining absolute concentrations of metabolites measured by MRS
29. Examination protocol of in vivo MR spectroscopy

Recommended literature

  • LIANG, Z. Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Signal Processing Perspective. New York: IEEE Press, 2000.
  • BERGER, S., BRAUN, S. 200 and More NMR Experiments: Practical Course. Wiley-VCH, 2002.
  • HUETTEL, S. A., SONG, A. W., MCCARTHY, G. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Second Edition, Sinauer Associates, Inc., 2009. ISBN 978-0-87893-286-3.
  • KUPKA K, a kol. Nukleární medicína, učební text, P3K, Příbram 2007, ISBN 978-80-903584- 9-2
  • https://www.sweb.cz/AstroNuklFyzika

Publication activity requirements

At least two original papers in a journal with an IF that are related to the topic of the dissertation and have a cumulative impact factor of at least 1,0. For at least one of the publications, the student must be the first author.

Defence requirements​

  • Fulfillment of all the above mentioned study obligations including the completion of the SDE.
  • Publication of at least two publications connected to the topic of the thesis and published in internationally recognized journal with IF (Web of Science). At least in one of them the applicant should be shown as the first author.
  • The SAB requires a Summary of the Dissertation.

Dissertation defence

This is a comprehensive scientific paper with a precise definition of the original results and citation of all sources. A minimum of two original papers accepted for publication in journals with an impact factor is a prerequisite for submission of the dissertation. The dissertation shall be submitted to the Chairman of the SAB, either in the classical form or in the form of a monothematic set of at least five scientific publications, accompanied by a common introduction, discussion and summary. A Summary of the Dissertation in English shall be submitted together with the dissertation.

The course of the defence

The applicant presents the topic of his research, discussion regarding the research and the dissertation thesis follows. The ecamination board will ask the student four questions from the above list.

Profile of a graduate of the study programme

Study programme is an interdisciplinary branch making use of the cooperation within the framework of basic science research in biology and medical clinical practice. Student education is focused on the relation between physics and medicine. Attention is paid to the knowledge of diagnostic and therapeutic methods, studies of physical processes on biological membranes, mathematical modelling of biological processes, biomechanics, biosignals, and also to the biophysical effects of electromagnetic radiation.

Information about graduate employment 

Graduates will be able to work not only in traditional scientific workplaces such as research institutes or universities, but also in clinical workplaces, research teams at universities and hospitals. In view of the increase in technology in medicine, involvement in international research teams focused on medical physics at clinical sites, especially at university and regional hospitals, can also be expected.

Created: 19. 5. 2021 / Modified: 20. 6. 2022 / Responsible person: ThDr. Jitka Sýkorová, Ph.D.