Experimental Surgery

Accreditation valid until: 27. 11. 2029

Chairman of the Subject Area Board:
prof. MUDr. Zdeněk KRŠKA, DrSc.

1st Department of Surgery –
Department of Abdominal,
Thoracic Surgery and Traumatology
First Faculty of Medicine
Charles University and General
University Hospital
U Nemocnice 2
128 08  Prague 2
phone: +420 224 962 200
e-mail: @email


Contact persons:
Bc. Lenka Hájková, MSc.
1st Department of Surgery –
Department of Abdominal,
Thoracic Surgery and Traumatology
First Faculty of Medicine
Charles University and General
University Hospital
U Nemocnice 2
128 08 Prague 2
phone: +420 224 962 208
e-mail: @email


Kristýna Walterová
the Head of Secretary
1st Department of Surgery –
Department of Abdominal,
Thoracic Surgery and Traumatology
First Faculty of Medicine
Charles University and General
University Hospital
U Nemocnice 2
128 08 Prague 2
phone: +420 224 962 215
e-mail: @email


Members of the Subject
Area Board

Characteristics of the study programme

The goal of the studies is training of the students for independent scientific as well as practical work in the field. The study will provide the doctorands with absolute knowledge of theoretic fields, cell biology, pharmacology, immunology, medical chemistry and biochemistry, physiology and pathology, basic laboratory technology as well as the latest laboratory technology in the field, and above all professional knowledge in the areas of children surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology, surgery, neurosurgery, ophthalmology, orthopaedics, otorhinolaryngology, plastic surgery, stomatology and urology. The graduates will be capable to set the hypothesis for scientific work, choose relevant methods for verification of the hypothesis, perform the practical tasks needed, scientifically evaluate and subsequently publish the results in scientific journals with an impact factor, give talks and presentations at professional conferences, symposiums and congresses. The graduates will have good prospects for careers in the surgical specialty, for achieving further scientific and educational grades, and participate in independent development of the field.

Admission procedure requirement specific to the study programme

The conditions and course of the admission procedure for the part-time of study are the same as the conditions for the full-time form. 

We recommend to contact your potential supervisor in advance and consult the suitable form of preparation for the interview. Each study programme has its own specifics, so the supervisor can help you to prepare for the specialized entrance examination (the interview).

Topics of dissertation thesis

The SAB did not list any topics. The candidate chooses the preliminary topic individually and contacts a potential supervisor. He/she consults with him on the chosen topic and agrees on its more precise specification. In case of any ambiguity, we recommend that you also contact the chairman of the SAB. If necessary, he/she can recommend that he/she consult the topic with another specialist according to the focus of the intended project.

If the candidate does not know which topic/supervisor to choose, he/she will contact the chairman of the SAB, with whom he/she will consult on a suitable topic and a potential supervisor.

This choice is preliminary, the admissions board may, after consultation with the candidate, nominate another supervisor.

Supervisors of the study programme

Each supervisor must be approved by the SAB. The criteria for admitting new supervisors are determined by the SAB. If the proposed supervisor has not yet been approved by the SAB, this must be done no later than the enrollment of the applicant in the study (provided that the applicant is accepted). You can find a list of supervisors approved by the SAB here. After clicking, the supervisor's workplace and contact information will be displayed.

Requirements during the study

Study obligations for full-time and part-time form of study are the same. 

The student’s duty is to master methodology of scientific work so that after completing the studies he/she will be capable of autonomous scientific activity and publication of its results in internationally renowned journals. During the studies, the student is supposed to pass two obligatory courses: Experimental Surgery I. (B90015) and Experimental Surgery II. (B90016) as well as the examination in English (D0400003). Taking and clerkship abroad is presumed. As directed by the supervisor, the student must actively participate in scientific conferences, congresses and assemblies of scientific societies, and regularly report on his/her results in seminars. It is recommended that these obligations, if possible, are incorporated in the student’s ISP. The SAB can also prescribe some other assignments for the student.  

Requirements for internships

It is recommended that the student takes at least one clerkship abroad, not shorter than one month, which can be compensated for by participation in and grant project with international participants or by other form of direct participation in international co-operation.

Listed courses

Experimental Surgery I. and Experimental Surgery II.

Requirements for the SDE

The state doctoral examination can be taken by the student after having fulfilled the following obligations:

  • Proof of having passed two obligatory courses during the study. 
  • Passing the obligatory examination in English language. 
  • Publications: It is necessary to prove at least two original publications with impact factor, both relevant to the topic of the dissertation thesis, the student being the first author of at least one of them. The total value of IF of all the student’s publications pertaining to the dissertation thesis (irrespective of standing of the authors) must be higher than 1. One synoptic publication on the topic of the student’s dissertation thesis published in and reviewed journal, where the student is the first author. This publication must be cited in the student’s evaluation for the 3rd year of the studies at latest. 

Examination areas

Anatomy, biology of the cell, pharmacology, immunology, medical chemistry and biochemistry, physiology and patology, gynecology and obstetrics, surgery, ophthalmology, orthopedics, otorhinolaryngology, stomatology and urology.

The course of the SDE

The professional exam is given by the field the student is active in. The student will choose two theoretical topic areas. At the examination, the students are asked two questions from the theoretical part and one question from the given field (gynecology and obstetrics, surgery, ophthalmology, orthopedics, otorhinolaryngology, stomatology, urology, plastic surgery, child surgery). The questions are drawn at random. 

Examination topics for the SDE

General part:


1. Topographic anatomy of the head

2. Topographic anatomy of the neck

3. Topographic anatomy of the back

4. Topographic anatomy of the upper extremity

5. Topographic anatomy of the lower extremity

6. Surface regions of the face

7. Submandibular triangle, carotid triangle

8. Anterior neck region

9. Thyroid gland and parathyroid glands – location related to other organs, blood supply

10. Lateral neck region, fissure of scalene muscles

11. Axillary fossa

12. Survey of the major vascular and nerve trunks of the upper extremity

13. Survey of the major vascular and nerve trunks of the lower extremity

14. Mediastinum – parts, location of organs

15. Topography of the thoracic wall, blood and nerve supply

16. Topography of the anterior abdominal wall, blood and nerve supply

17. Topography of organs of the peritoneal cavity – supramesocolic part

18. Location and space relations of the gallbladder and bile ducts

19. Topography of the duodenum and pancreas

20. Topography of organs of the peritoneal cavity – antromesocolic part

21. Retroperitoneum – topography of organs and major vessels

22. Topographic anatomy of the male pelvis

23. Topographic anatomy of the female pelvis

24. Pelvic floor, perineal region

25. Topography of the spinal canal, lumbar puncture

Cell biology

1. Growth factors: review of major ones, and mechanisms of their action

2. Differentiation and its disorders; clonal composition of tissues

3. Stem cells, their biology and applications

4. Extracellular matrix – review of basic components and their functions

5. Fibroplastic processes – physiology and pathology

6. Calcifications – classification and mechanisms of occurrence

7. Necrosis versus apoptosis

8. Recent view of tumour transformation of the cell

9. Cell cycle

10. Pathology of oedemas – basic types and their pathophysiologic mechanisms

11. Ischaemia – pathophysiology of causes and consequences

12. Genetically conditioned thrombotic states

13. Genetically conditioned cardiomyopathies

14. Cell transplantations


1. Reasons for use of medications and types of pharmacotherapy

2. Names of drugs and medicinal preparations used in formularies

3. Fortune of substances in the organism; clinical pharmacokinetics

4. Pharmacodynamics

5. Receptor-effector systems and transmission of the signal

6. Unwanted side effects of medications; efficient pharmacotherapy

7. Substances influencing the vegetative nervous system

8. General anaesthetics, peripheral muscle relaxants and premedication

9. Local anaesthetics

10. Hypnotics and antiepileptic drugs

11. Analgesics

12. Psychopharmacological agents

13. Prokinetic and spasmolytic agents

14. Cardiac stimulants and antiarrhythmic agents

15. Antihypertensive and vasoactive substances

16. Anticoagulants

17. Anti-asthmatics and medications for the respiratory system

18. Anti-infection substances

19. Hormones

20. Cytostatics


1. Basic characteristics of innate immunity

2. Basic characteristic features of adaptive immunity

3. Antigen-presenting cells

4. Interactions between T and B lymphocytes

5. Co-operation of cells in immunity response

6. Adhesive molecules and their functions

7. Specific cytotoxic reactions

8. Complement system and its roles in inflammatory response

9. Cells takin part in hypersensitivity reactions

10. Phenomenon of MHC restriction

11. Basic characteristics of cytokines

12. Role of cytokines in adaptive immunity

13. Recognition structures of immunocompetent cells

14. Interferons and their function

15. Function of antibodies in the infectious environment process

16. Mechanism of cytokine action

17. Role of cell immunity in defence of the organism

18. Types of immunopathological reactions

19. Role of adhesive molecules in inflammation

20. Mechanisms of autoimmune damage to the tissue

21. Common mucosa immunity system

22. Regulatory function of T lymphocytes

23. Subpopulation of T lymphocytes

24. IgE-mediated immunopathological reaction

25. CD4+T lymphocytes and their function

26. Non-organ specific autoantibodies

27. Organ specific autoantibodies

28. Risks of occurrence of autoimmunity

29. Role of cytokines in innate immunity

30. Classification of cytokines according to function

31. Role of co-stimulatory molecules in activation of T lymphocytes

Medical chemistry and biochemistry

1. Basic principles and mechanisms of signal transduction

2. Kinds of signals as “materialized information”

3. Specificity and “promiscuity” of “signal pathways”: one ligand different functions versus different ligands similar function

4. Endocrine, paracrine and autocrine signals: Different functional, pathogenic,

diagnostic and therapeutic consequences

5. Membrane receptors: Structure, function, mechanisms

6. Intracellular receptors: Structure, function, mechanisms

7. “Non-standard” receptors: Protease-activated receptors, adhesion molecules

8. Post-receptor part of signal transduction. G proteins, non-receptor enzyme activities, receptor substrates involved in the signalling cascade

9. Projection of the signalling cascade to the nuclear level

10. Connection of signalling transduction molecules and oncogenes/anti-oncogenes

11. Sharing and crossing of signalling transduction pathways. Principles and examples of information context

12. Signalization regulating cell proliferation and differentiation

13. Regulation of growth in oncology: transformation, invasion, metastasizing, angiogenesis

14. Examples of regulation of metabolic processes

15. Molecular nature of inflammatory reaction

16. Molecular nature of carcinogenesis

17. Function and importance of oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes

18. Regulation of gene expression

19. Basic methods of molecular biology, appropriateness of use of particular methods in applied research and diagnostics

Pathological physiology (1)

1. Regeneration and repair of tissues. Healing of wounds – biology and pathology

2. The part of inflammatory reaction in healing of wounds

3. The part of tissue hypoxia in healing of wounds

4. The part of tissue hypoxia in the process of tumour growth and induction of new clones

5. Mechanism of activation or inhibition of genes through hypoxia

6. Humoral factors important for angiogenesis

7. Stagnant and ischemic hypoxia compared

8. Pathophysiological basis of oxygen therapy

9. Possible adverse effects of oxygen inhalation

10. Damage to tissues and organs during their preservation for the purposes of transplantation

11. Metabolic consequences of tissue hypoxia

12. Death of cells through necrosis and apoptosis due to tissue hypoxia

13. Impact of anaemia to partial pressures in blood and in tissues

14. Compensatory reactions of the oxygen transport mechanism

15. Mechanisms of vasodilatation in hypoxic tissue and in tissue affected by inflammation

16. Pathogenesis of multiorganic failure

17. Pathophysiology of septic shock

18. Pathophysiology of circulatory shock

19. Controlled hypothermia

20. Acidification and alkalization of the internal environment

21. Changes in organism due to immobilization

22. Mechanisms involved in transplant rejection

23. Graft versus host disease (GVHD).

24. Malabsorption syndrome

Pathological physiology (2)

1. Definition of pain, definition of acute and chronic pain

2. Types of pain (nociceptive, neuropathic) and differences between them

3. Pain receptors, pain-inducing factors

4. Pain perception at spinal level, Rexed spinal lamina, pain mediators at the spinal level

5. Pain pathways: spinothalamic, spinoreticulotalamic and other pathways that influence pain

6. Pain perception at the thalamic level

7. Pain perception at the cortical and cerebral level

8. Descendent pain systems

9. Sex differences in perception of pain

10. Pain and stress

11. Phantom pain

12. Visceral pain

13. Pharmacological management of pain

14. Neurosurgical interventions against manifestations of pain 

15. Rehabilitation methods, psychotherapy, anaesthetic intervention in management of pain

16. Palliative medicine and pain

17. Algorithm of management of acute and chronic pain

18. Most common painful syndromes and their managements

19. Psychogenic pain and its mechanisms

20. Endorphins, enkephalins and endomorphins and their role in perception of pain

Histology and embryology

1. Histology of the digestive tract

2. Histology of glands of the digestive system

3. Histology of the circulatory system

4. Histology of the lymphatic system

5. Histology of the male reproductive system

6. Histology of the female reproductive system

7. Histology of the excretory system

8. Histology of the nerve tissue and nervous system

9. Histology of the sensory system

10. Histology of the integumentary system

11. Histology of the endocrine system

12. Histology of the respiratory system

13. Gametogenesis and fertilization (clinically – chromosomal aberrations, molas)

14. First three weeks of development of the embryo and related developmental defects

15. Development of the digestive system and related developmental defects

16. Development of the locomotor system and related developmental defects

17. Development of the nervous system and related developmental defects

18. Development of the respiratory system and related developmental defects

19. Development of the circulatory system and related developmental defects

20. Development of the excretory system and related developmental defects

21. Development of the reproductive system and related developmental defects

22. Development of the head and neck (pharyngeal arches and face) and related developmental defects

23. Development of sensory systems

24. Development the endocrine system and skin

Professional part:

Paediatric surgery

1. Injuries to the chest and lungs

2. Injuries to the oesophagus, diaphragm, heart and vessels

3. Injuries to the liver, bile ducts and spleen

4. Injuries to the duodenum and pancreas

5. Injuries to the urinary organs

6. Deformities of the thoracic wall

7. Bronchopulmonary malformations

8. Acquired pulmonary and pleural conditions

9. Diaphragmatic hernias

10. Oesophageal conditions

11. Gastro-oesophageal reflux

12. Tumours of the lungs and thoracic wall

13. Mediastinal conditions

14. Tumours of the oesophagus, stomach, small and large intestine

15. Teratomas

16. Tumours of the liver and pancreas

17. Tumours of the kidney and adrenal gland

18. Neuroblastoma

19. Phimosis, paraphimosis, balanitis, tumours of the testis

20. Acute scrotal syndrome

21. Conditions of the stomach and duodenum

22. Atresias and stenoses of the small and large intestine

23. Malrotations

24. Meconium ileus and meconium blockage syndrome

25. Necrotizing enterocolitis

26. Hirschsprung’s disease

27. Anorectal atresia and cloacal malformations

28. Invaginations

29. Duplicatures in the gastrointestinal tract

30. Meckel’s diverticulum

31. Appendicitis

32. Conditions of bile ducts

33. Portal hypertension

34. Conditions of the pancreas

35. Conditions of the spleen

36. Gastroschisis and omphalocele

37. Umbilical hernia, inguinal hernia, hydrocele

38. Retention of the testis

Obstetrics and gynaecology

1. Menstrual cycle – endocrinology, disturbances of the cycle, diagnosis, treatment

2. Concepcion, development and nutrition, foetus, ovum and its defects

3. Functional changes of organs in pregnancy

4. Endocrine changes in pregnancy

5. Pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of breast conditions

6. Cervical tumours

7. Tumours

8. Ovarian tumours

9. Female infertility

10. Endometriosis

11. Sexual disturbances

12. Trophoblastic disease

13. Early and late gestoses

14. Hypoxia of the foetus in pregnancy and during the labour

15. Pre-cancers of the reproductive system

16. Disorders of glucose metabolism in pregnancy

17. DIC in obstetrics

18. Ultrasonography in obstetrics

19. Irregular development of the foetus and growth retardation

20. Menopause

21. Genetics in obstetrics

22. Family planning – contraception

23. Vulvovaginal inflammations

24. Acute abdomen in gynaecology

25. Acute abdomen in obstetrics

26. Pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of faecal incontinence


1. Wounds

- classification

- management in first aid

- surgical treatment

2. Wound infections

- tetanus

- gas gangrene

- rabies

3. Burns

- classification

- treatment

- post-burn condition

4. Fractures

- classification

- first aid and treatment

- surgical treatment

5. Ways of surgical treatment of fractures

- conservative

- osteosyntheses

- extensions

- outer fixation

6. Multiple trauma

- definition

- procedure of treatment

- complications

7. Chest injuries

- pneumo- and haemothorax

- rib fractures

- ways of chest drainages

8. Craniocerebral injuries

- classification of disturbances of consciousness

- skull fractures

- intracranial bleeding

9. Abdominal trauma

- penetrating

- blunt

- haemoperitoneum

10. Transplantation of organs

- organization

- legal aspects

- success rate

11. Kidney transplantation

12. Heart transplantation

13. Combined heart-lung transplantation

14. Lung transplantation

15. Liver transplantation

16. Pancreas transplantation

17. Mini-invasive surgery

- indications

- advantages

- pitfalls

18. TNM classification of tumours

- definition

- use

- strategy of treatment

19. Bronchogenic carcinoma

- oetiology

- diagnosis

- ways of treatment

20. Colorectal carcinoma

- oetiology

- diagnosis

- ways of treatment

21. Gastric carcinoma  

- symptomatology

- diagnosis

- ways of treatment

22. Gastroduodenal ulceration

- bleeding

- perforation

- stenoses

23. Complications of cholelithiasis

- obstructive

- inflammatory

- surgical interventions

24. Pancreatitis

- acute

- chronic

- indications for surgical treatment

25. Acute peritonitis

- causes

- symptomatology

- treatment

26. Ileus

- causes

- signs and symptoms

- treatment

27. Acute appendicitis

- symptomatology

- complications

- treatment

28. Bleeding in GIT

- hematemesis

- melena

- enterorrhagia

29. Bowel inflammations

- Crohn’s disease

- ulcerative colitis

- diverticulitis

30. Arterial disorders

- injury

- acute occlusion

- embolism

31. Thromboembolic disease

- thrombosis

- embolism

- prevention

- treatment

32. Inflammations, infections and antibiotics

- specific types of surgical infections and antimicrobial therapy

33. Fluid and electrolyte balance

- volume disorders

- special electrolyte disorders

- acid–base balance

- principles of hydrotherapy and electrolyte therapy

34. Rational nutrition in a patient before and after a surgery on bowels, pancreas, liver etc. and for tumour disease

35. Treatment of patients with an injury

36. Surgery for portal hypertension

37. Hernias of the abdominal wall

38. Conditions of adrenal glands and indications for surgical treatment

39. Surgery for the thyroid and pituitary glands

40. Surgery for malign condition of the breast

41. Myocardial ischaemia and its surgical management

42. Surgical management of arteries and veins of the lower extremity

43. Diagnosis and surgical procedures in disturbances of consciousness

44. Brain and medulla lesions, brain death

45. Tumour conditions of the lungs and mediastinum, and their surgical treatment



I/1 History of neurosurgery

I/2 Emergencies in neurosurgery

I/3 Basic electrophysiology (EMG, EEG, EP)

I/4 Imaging techniques (CT scan, MRI, sonography, AG, PMG) – nature of the investigation, sensitivity, specificity, algorithm of use

I/5 Intracranial hypertension (mechanisms of development, diagnosis, treatment)

I/6 Monitoring of the level of consciousness

I/7 Disturbances of CSF dynamics (hydrocephalus, diagnosis, therapy)

I/8 Monitoring of vital functions and laboratory values at the surgical ICU

I/9 Pain – symptom of disease

I/10 Epileptic seizure – manifestation of disease of CNS

I/11 Neuromodulation (principles, application, indications)

I/12 Functional neurosurgery (principles, application, indications)

I/13 Radiosurgery (principles, application, indications)

I/14 Stereotaxis (principles, application, indications)

I/15 Perioperative EF methods

I/16 Interventional radiology

I/17 Brain death and transplantation programme


II/1 Classification, clinical aspects and algorithm of the diagnostic and therapeutic procedure and intracranial tumours

II/2 Gliomas

II/3 Meningiomas

II/4 Metastases

II/5 Sella turcica tumours

II/6 Tumours in the pinna region

II/7 Tumours of the cerebellopontine angle

II/8 Tumours cerebellar hemispheres

II/9 Tumours of the brain stem

II/10 Tumours of the ventricular system

II/11 Post-operative actinotherapy and chemotherapy

II/12 Spinal tumours

II/13 Subarachnoid bleeding + brain aneurysms

II/14 Cerebral arteriovenous malformations & cavernomas

II/15 Cerebral ischaemia, carotid endarterectomy, extra-intracranial anastomosis

II/16 Intracerebral bleeding in hypertonic patients

II/17 Carotid-cavernous fistula


III/1 Craniocerebral traumas – classification, algorithm of diagnostic and therapeutic procedure

III/2 Frontobasal trauma, fractures of the skull

III/3 Gunshot injuries to the brain

III/4 Post-traumatic intracranial haematomas

III/5 Diffuse axonal trauma

III/6 Injuries to the brain vessels and cranial nerves

III/7 Surgical accesses into the intracranial space and cranioplasty

III/8 Injuries to the spinal cord

III/9 Injuries to peripheral nerves

III/10 Entrapment syndromes and tumours of peripheral nerves

III/11 Infectious diseases of the brain and spinal cord

III/12 Paediatric neurosurgery

III/13 Oetiopathogenesis of the cervico-brachial syndrome; surgical treatment of prolapsed cervical intervertebral discs; surgical treatment of lumbar stenosis

III/14 Oetiopathogenesis of the cervico-brachial syndrome; surgical treatment of prolapsed cervical intervertebral discs; surgical treatment of osteophytes of cervical spine

III/15 Spondylolisthesis (algorithm of the diagnostic and therapeutic procedure); failed back surgery syndrome

III/16 Surgical treatment of pain

III/17 Epilepsy surgery


1. Accommodation, presbyopia and its correction

2. Refraction of the eye, ways of correction, surgical and non-surgical

3. Laser and non-laser refraction interventions and their complications

4. Dystrophy and degeneration of the cornea – clinical aspects, treatment

5. Transplantation of the cornea

6. Injuries to the eye – first aid

7. Glaucoma – diagnosis, types of glaucoma

8. Glaucoma – non-surgical and surgical treatment

9. Eye manifestations in DM

10. Treatment of diabetic retinopathy

11.Differencial diagnosis of haemophthalmus

12. Age-related macular degeneration – clinical aspects, treatment

13. Retinal detachment – clinical aspects, treatment

14. Other conditions of the retina

15. Cataract – treatment, complications

16. Intraocular tumours in adults

17. Genetically correlated eye conditions

18. Systemic diseases and the eye

19. Red eye – differential diagnosis

20. Sore eye – differential diagnosis

21. Impairment and loss of vision – differential diagnosis

22. Inborn anomalies of the eye

23. Amblyopia

24. Eye tumours in children

25. Leukocoria – differential diagnosis

26. Palsies of oculomotor nerves – clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment

27. Pathologies of the pupil

28.Neurititida of the visual nerve – clinical aspects, diagnosis, differential diagnosis

29.Tumours and surgery of the orbit

30. Examination of the visual field, pathologic findings – differential diagnosis


1. Coxa arthrosis

2. Manifestations of inflammatory rheumatic conditions on the locomotor system and their surgical§ treatment

3. Defective posture and scoliosis

4. Benign tumours of the locomotor system

5. Malign tumours of the locomotor system

6. Endoprosthetics in general, kinds of joint replacements

7. Artificial replacements of the knee joint

8. Artificial replacements of the hip joint

9. Pre-arthrosis states, secondary arthrosis

10. Osteoarthrosis of the knee joint and its management

11. Isthmic syndromes of the upper extremity

12. Conditions of muscles, tendons and aponeuroses

13. Aseptic bone necrosis

14. Specific inflammations of the locomotor system

15. Metastatic affliction of the skeleton

16. Non-specific inflammations of bones and joints

17. Vertebrogenic algic syndrome

18. Inborn dysplasia of the hip joint

19. Enthesopathy and tendovaginitis

20.Differential diagnosis of sore shoulder


1. Tumours of salivary glands

2. Tumours of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses

3. Carcinoma of the nasopharynx

4. Carcinoma of the oropharynx

5. Carcinoma of the oral cavity

6. Carcinoma of the larynx

7. Carcinoma of the hypopharynx

8. Malign tumours of the thyroid gland

9. Node metastases of pavement cell carcinomas of the head and neck

10. Tumours of the cerebellopontine angle and the pyramid

11. Differential diagnosis of rigid masses on the neck

12. Disturbances of balance – diagnostic procedure

13.Differential diagnosis of disturbances of balance

14. Peripheral vestibular syndrome

15. Acute otitis media

16. Chronic otitis media

17. Complications of otitis media

18. Otosclerosis

19. Tympanoplasties

20. Surgical repair of the ear 

21. Examination of hearing

22. Differential diagnosis of hypacusis

23. Scope of rehabilitation for hypacusis and deafness – conservative and surgical

24. ENT aspects of facial nerve palsy

25. Acute tonsillitis and its complications

26. Chronic tonsillitis and vegetationes adenoideae

27. Acute inflammations of the larynx

28. Chronic inflammations and pre-cancers of the larynx

29. Differential diagnosis of limited nasal patency

30. Acute rhinosinusitis and its complications

31. Chronic rhinosinusitis

32. FESS – concept, indications, complications

33. Epistaxis

34. Injuries to the facial skeleton

35.Tumours of parathyroid glands

36. Swallowing disturbances – diagnosis and treatment

37. Obstructive syndrome of sleep apnoea

Plastic surgery

1. Skin – properties, grafts, lobes

2. Muscular and musculocutaneuos lobes

3. Basic microsurgery

4. Basic transplantation technique – skin, fat, fasciae, tendons, muscles, cartilage, bone, peripheral nerves

5. Keloid and hypertrophic scars

6. Principles of treatment for injuries (be heat, electricity, radiation)

7. Facial injuries

8. Rhinoplasty

9. Paresis of the facial nerve

10. Blepharoplasty, facelift

11. Clefts, craniofacial syndromes

12. Skin tumours – benign, malign

13. Lobes in the area of the face

14. Bedsores

15. Aesthetic surgery of breasts, breast reconstitution

16. Abdominoplasty

17. Genitals – inborn & acquired defects, reconstitution

18. Replantation and revascularization of the upper extremity

19. Basics of treatment for hand injuries

20. Injuries to the flexor and extensor apparatus of the hand, Dupuytren’s contracture

21. Inborn and acquired defects in the area of the hand

22. Infections in the area of the hand


1. Particular stages of development of deciduous and permanent teeth, and their importance in children’s dental practice

2. Materials and procedures used in conservative dental care in children

3. Preparation of the child for dental treatment (psychological, premedication, sedation with Midazolam) and indications for treatment in general anaesthesia

4. Filling materials in restorative dentistry – description, indications (amalgam, composite resin, glass polyalkenoate)

5. Tooth decay, causes, theories of origin, classification, examination and therapy

6. Anatomy and physiology of the tooth. Hard dental tissues, pulp

7. Endodontic treatment of the tooth – indications, contraindications, procedure of preparation

8. Conditions of the dental pulp and periapical region – classification, differential diagnosis, signs & symptoms, therapy

9. Primary, secondary and tertiary prophylaxis in restorative dentistry

10. Examination and diagnosis in periodontology

11. Treatment plan for conditions of the periodontium – initial phase

12. Principles of surgical and prosthetic treatment in periodontology

13. Examination of oral mucosa

14. Most common conditions of oral mucosa

15. Classification of defect of the dentition in the prosthetic aspect

16. Importance of prosthetic treatment (rehabilitation, correction, splinting)

17. Classification of permanently fixed replacements

18. Classification of removable replacements

19. Major and auxiliary materials in prosthetic dentistry

20. Oetiology and prevention of orthodontic anomalies

21. Craniofacial development and growth

22. Orthodontic diagnostics

23. Types of orthodontic treatment

24. Orthodontic surgical treatment in jaw anomalies

25. Inflammatory conditions around the jaw spaces: Causes, clinical picture, principles of treatment

26. Injuries to the face: Causes, clinical picture, principles of treatment

27. Major kinds of jaw and face anomalies. Brief survey of possible causes, diagnosis, principles of treatment

28. Tumours of the mouth and face. Brief classification, diagnosis, principles of treatment.

Oncologic prevention

29. Biomaterials and guided tissue regeneration

30. Pains and aches of the face


1. Clinical anatomy and development of the urinary system and male reproductive system

2. Inborn developmental defects of the kidneys, renal pelvis and ureters. Diagnosis and treatment

3. Inborn developmental defects of the urinary bladder and urethra. Diagnosis and treatment

4. Vesicoureteral reflux

5. Infections of urinary pathways

6. Urinary sepsis and septic shock

7. Urogenital tuberculosis

8. Retroperitoneal conditions

9. Tumour conditions of adrenal glands

10. Tumours of the kidney parenchyma

11. Tumours of the renal pelvis and ureters

12. Tumours of the urinary bladder

13. Tumours of the prostate

14. Tumours of the testes and penis

15. Obstructive uropathy

16. Benign hyperplasia of the prostate

17. Strictures of the urethra

18. Oetiopathogenesis of urolithiasis, diagnosis, metaphylaxis 

19. Treatment of urolithiasis

20. Urinary incontinence

21. Dysfunction of lower urinary pathways

22. Traumas to the urogenital system

23. Acute scrotum

24. Male infertility

25. Erectile dysfunction

26. Urinary diversion

27. Laparoscopy in urology


1. Pre-anaesthetic examination, preoperative preparation, premedication

2. Prophylaxis of thromboembolic disease

3. Choice of the type of anaesthesia – general and/or regional/local

4. Recent concept of general anaesthesia – supplementing and combined anaesthesia

5. Recent concept and techniques of regional anaesthesia

6. Neuro-axial anaesthesia

7. Intravenous anaesthesia

8. Inhaled anaesthetics

9. Local anaesthetics

10. Muscle relaxants, neuromuscular transmission and its monitoring

11. Pharmacokinetics in anaesthesiology

12. Observation and monitoring of patient under anaesthesia

13. Care of patients after anaesthesia

14. Treatment of acute postoperative pain

15. Securing the patency of the airway

16. Perioperative infusion treatment

17. Perioperative transfusion treatment, management of haemorrhagic conditions and life-threatening bleeding

18. Perioperative management in patients with COPD

19. Perioperative management in patients with ischaemic heart disease

20. Perioperative management in patients with DM

21. Perioperative management in patients with kidney and liver disease

22. Anaesthesia in abdominal surgery

23. Anaesthesia in thoracic interventions

24. Anaesthesia in obstetrics

25. Neuro-anaesthesia

26. Cardio-anaesthesia

27. Anaesthesia in traumas

28. Out-patient anaesthesia

29. Children’s anaesthesia

30. Anaesthesia in the elderly and children

Publication activity requirements

Before passing the SDE, the student will be obliged to prove at least two original publications in journals with IF, pertaining to the topic of the dissertation thesis. At least in one of them, the student shall be the first author. The total IF value of all the student’s publications pertaining to the dissertation thesis (irrespective of standing of the authors) must be higher than 1. One synoptic publication on the topic of the student’s dissertation thesis published in and reviewed journal, where the student is the first author. This publication must be cited in the student’s evaluation for the 3rd year of the studies at latest.

Defence requirements

  • SDE
  • Two publications in extenso with the total impact factor of at least 1. In one of them the student must be stated as the first author. 
  • The Dissertation thesis must be compiled in compliance with the guidelines displayed at the faculty’s web pages. 
  • The SAB requires a Summary of the Dissertation.

Profile of a graduate of the study programme

Tegraduate is an erudite researcher who has extensive knowledge of theoretical disciplines that he is able to apply in practice. The graduate knows the basic laboratory technique and uses the latest laboratory techniques in his specialization. They are able to devise a hypothesis of scientific work, choose methods for verifying the hypothesis, evaluate the results of their work scientifically, publish them in impact journals and present them at symposia and congresses. Graduate has the prerequisites for good application in the surgical specialization and for the achievement of other scientific and pedagogical degrees.

Information about graduate employment 

Graduates are mainly employed in the field of medicine, namely in cell biology, pharmacology, immunology, medical chemistry and biochemistry, physiology and pathology, laboratory techniques in paediatric surgery, gynaecology and obstetrics, surgery, neurosurgery, ophthalmology, orthopaedics, otorhinolaryngology, plastic surgery, dentistry and urology.

Created: 8. 3. 2013 / Modified: 14. 3. 2022 / Responsible person: ThDr. Jitka Sýkorová, Ph.D.